When New York prosecutors finally get to take a look at the federal tax returns of former President Donald J. Trump, they will learn a veritable how-to guideline for obtaining prosperous even though shedding hundreds of thousands of bucks and having to pay very little to no money taxes.

Whether or not they come across proof of crimes, nevertheless, will also rely on other data not identified in the precise returns.

The United States Supreme Court on Monday cleared the way for the Manhattan district lawyer, Cyrus R. Vance Jr., to get hold of eight many years of Mr. Trump’s federal cash flow tax returns and other data from his accountants. The determination capped a very long-running lawful struggle over prosecutors’ entry to the facts.

The New York Occasions final 12 months presented a lot more or significantly less a preview of what awaits Mr. Vance, when it obtained and analyzed many years of earnings tax details for Mr. Trump and his companies. The tax information give an unparalleled and very in depth seem at the byzantine planet of Mr. Trump’s finances, which for yrs he has concurrently bragged about and sought to retain secret.

The Times’s examination confirmed that the previous president reported hundreds of millions of dollars in business enterprise losses, went years devoid of having to pay federal revenue taxes and faces an Interior Income Services audit of a $72.9 million tax refund he claimed a 10 years back.

Among the other matters, the data exposed that Mr. Trump had paid just $750 in federal money taxes in his 1st 12 months as president and no cash flow taxes at all in 10 of the former 15 several years. They also showed he had prepared off $26 million in “consulting fees” as a company price among 2010 and 2018, some of which look to have been paid to his older daughter, Ivanka Trump, though she was a salaried personnel of the Trump Firm.

The legitimacy of the costs, which lessened Mr. Trump’s taxable earnings, has considering the fact that turn out to be a topic of Mr. Vance’s investigation, as properly as a independent civil inquiry by Letitia James, the New York legal professional general. Ms. James and Mr. Vance are Democrats, and Mr. Trump has sought to portray the numerous inquiries as politically enthusiastic, though denying any wrongdoing.

Mr. Vance’s business office has issued subpoenas and conducted interviews in recent months as it scrutinizes a variety of monetary matters, which includes regardless of whether the Trump Firm misrepresented the value of assets when acquiring financial loans or paying out property taxes, as nicely as the payment of $130,000 in hush funds through the 2016 marketing campaign to Stephanie Clifford, the pornographic movie actress whose stage identify is Stormy Daniels. Amid all those interviewed have been employees of Deutsche Lender, a single of Mr. Trump’s premier lenders.

For all their revelations, Mr. Trump’s tax documents are also noteworthy for what they do not clearly show, including any new facts about the payment to Ms. Clifford, which was the preliminary emphasis of Mr. Vance’s investigation when it began two yrs in the past.

The tax returns represent a self-described accounting of revenues and charges, and generally deficiency the specificity essential to know, for instance, if lawful prices connected to hush-money payments were claimed as a tax compose-off, or if funds from Russia at any time moved by Mr. Trump’s financial institution accounts. The absence of that stage of detail underscores the opportunity price of other data that Mr. Vance won access to with Monday’s Supreme Court conclusion.

In addition to the tax returns, Mr. Trump’s accountants, Mazars United states, should also develop business enterprise documents on which those people returns are centered and communications with the Trump Organization. Such content could supply vital context and history to decisions that Mr. Trump or his accountants created when preparing to file taxes.

John D. Fort, a former chief of the I.R.S. felony investigation division, explained tax returns had been a practical tool for uncovering prospects, but could only be entirely recognized with added financial information and facts acquired elsewhere.

“It’s a quite critical particular money doc, but it is just a person piece of the puzzle,” said Mr. Fort, a C.P.A. and the director of investigations with Kostelanetz & Fink in Washington. “What you come across in the return will will need to be followed up on with interviews and subpoenas.”

Nonetheless, The Times’s investigation of Mr. Trump’s returns uncovered a amount of misleading assertions and falsehoods he has propagated about his prosperity and business acumen.

Several promises by Mr. Trump of generous philanthropy fell aside upon examination of his tax returns, which elevated issues about each the amount of money of selected donations and the overall character of his tax-deductible giving. For example, $119.3 million of the about $130 million in charitable deductions he claimed since 2005 turned out to be the estimated benefit of pledges not to build true estate, occasionally just after a prepared challenge fell by way of.

At least two of individuals land-dependent charitable deductions, one particular linked to a golf training course in Los Angeles and the other a Westchester estate known as Seven Springs, are identified to be component of the civil inquiry by Ms. James, who is examining whether appraisals supporting the tax create-offs were being inflated.

Far more broadly, the tax documents showed how the general public disclosures he filed as a applicant and then as president made available a distorted perspective of his all round finances by reporting glowing quantities for his golfing courses, hotels and other firms based mostly on the gross revenues they gathered just about every calendar year. The actual bottom line, just after losses and fees, was considerably gloomier: In 2018, even though Mr. Trump’s public filings showed $434.9 million in revenue, his tax returns declared a overall of $47.4 million in losses.

And this sort of dire numbers had been not an anomaly. Mr. Trump’s numerous golfing programs, a main ingredient of his business enterprise empire, reported losses of $315.6 million from 2000 to 2018, when the cash flow from licensing his name to hotels and resorts had all but dried up by the time he entered the White Property. In addition, Mr. Trump has hundreds of thousands and thousands of bucks in loans, a great deal of which he individually confirmed, coming because of in the future few decades.

The Times’s investigation also discovered that he faces a most likely devastating I.R.S. audit concentrating on the massive refund he claimed in 2010, which covered all the federal income taxes he paid from 2005 to 2008, as well as interest. Mr. Trump regularly cited the ongoing audit as the cause he could not launch his tax returns, just after originally stating he would, even although very little about the audit course of action prevented him from executing so.

If an I.R.S. ruling have been to finally go versus him, Mr. Trump could be pressured to spend back again a lot more than $100 million, factoring in fascination and possible penalties, in addition to some $21.2 million in condition and area tax refunds that ended up centered on the figures in his federal filings.

Russ Buettner and Susanne Craig contributed reporting.